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Examples of severe procedures

Examples of procedures and ‘models’ that have the potential to cause severe suffering

Some examples of potentially severe procedures are listed on pages 8 to 9 of the European Commission report (PDF 192KB) on prospective severity classification. Further examples are listed below, on the basis of the scientific literature and discussions with researchers, animal technologists and veterinarians working in academia and industry in the UK. Note that this list is presented as guidance only; the actual severity of these procedures will depend upon individual experimental protocols and the efforts that have been made to refine these.

  • Severe cancer models - involving large tumours, resection, bone metastasis, brain tumours, pancreatic tumours
  • Irradiation with reconstitution of bone marrow
  • Some heart disease models: myocardial infarction induction; Monocrotaline-induced PAH; transverse aortic constriction/banding
  • Spinal cord injury models
  • Infectious disease models
  • Tamoxifen as inducers of gene function
  • Vaccine testing for regulatory purposes
  • Toxicology / ecotoxicology protocols involving many species
  • Models of Motor Neuron Disease
  • Cerebral malaria in rodents
  • Multi-organ failure models
  • Pancreatitis models
  • Demyelination of CNS
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