The following case histories illustrate where refinement has been applied to severe models or procedures and the benefits that have accrued:
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ALS in mice
Case history 1 (ALS): Changes to welfare assessment and application of refinement help to reduce suffering in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Cuprizone in mice
Case history 2 (cuprizone): Use of imaging techniques and additional refinements reduce severity from severe to mild in a model of demyelination.
Fungal infection in mice
Case history 3 (fungal): Development of an early humane endpoint in a model of fungal infection.
Rheumatoid arthritis in mice
Case history 4 (RA): Adoption of a range of refinements combine to reduce suffering in a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis.